martes, 16 de febrero de 2016

APPROACH, METHOD, DESIGN, PROCEDURE…



GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD
The first level that we are going to analyze is the Grammar translation Method:
In the presentation, there is a long list of vocabulary items.
The vocabulary is always translated.
Phonetics
Explanation of the grammatical rules (they explain the grammatical rules in Spanish)
Main Objectives (till the XX century):
Reading and writing
Grammar structures and translation
Study of morphology and syntax.
Memorization of grammar rules and long list of vocabulary items.
Teacher-centered. (the teacher is the centre of the class)
Textbooks are fundamental.
Some aspects that can be analyzed:
1. No use of the second language in the class, except for translation; they usually use Spanish and they use English only for translations.
2. The vocabulary is learnt by memorizing long list.
3. Reading and writing are the center of the class: no place for listening and speaking.
4. Grammar and syntax are extremely important for language learning. Grammar is taught deductively.
Deductive: Teacher gives the rules and the students apply them.
Inductive:  they need to deal with the English discovering.
This Grammar method should attach on the need and necessities that the students have.

DIRECT METHOD
1. Classroom interaction was conducted exclusively in the target language (lengua como objeto de estudio).
2. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.
3. Oral communication skills were built up in a carefully graded progression…
4. Grammar was taught inductively.
5. New teaching points were introduced orally.
6. Concrete vocabulary was taught trough demonstration, objects and pictures…
7. Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.
8. Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.
Summing up/ Main objectives
Objectives: Conversation, discussion.
Use of the mother tongue is forbidden.
Mainly oral production and listening.
No translation.
No grammar rules. Inductive.
Lot of imagination and inspiration.
Tiring for the teacher
A problem for shy students.
Summary of a lesson:
Presentation of the topic in the target language.
Students repeat (chorus, whole class, groups, rows, …)
The teacher explains a topic normally from real life situations. She uses objects, mime, etc as the language used in the target language.
Use of songs and games in the classroom.
Use of wall charts, posters, and visual aids used in the classroom.
Listening and speaking are promoted from the very beginning.
“Children at an early age like playing with the spoken language”

AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD
The audio-lingual method, Army Method, or New Key, is a style of teaching used in teaching foreign languages. It is based on behaviorist theory, which professes that certain traits of living things, and in this case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcement—correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait (cualidad) would receive negative feedback. They use vocabulary, phonetics, sentence patterns and the construction of drills.

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