COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING METHOD (CLL)
Community language learning (CLL) is an approach in which students work together to develop what aspects of a language they would like to learn. The teacher acts as a counsellor and a paraphraser, while the learner acts as a collaborator, although sometimes this role can be changed.
Examples of these types of communities have recently arisen with the explosion of educational resources for language learning on the Web.
• It was created especially for adult learners who might fear to appear foolish.
• Teacher becomes a language counsellor
• Students work in small groups
• Teacher coordinates, guides, helps…
• Students feel confident
Suggestopedia (US English) or Suggestopædia (UK English) is a teaching method developed by the Bulgarian psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov. It is used in different fields, but mostly in the field of foreign language learning. Lozanov has claimed that by using this method a teacher's students can learn a language approximately three to five times as quickly as through conventional teaching methods.
Suggestopedia has been called a pseudoscience. It strongly depends on the trust that students develop towards the method by simply believing that it works
The intended purpose of Suggestopedia was to enhance learning by tapping into the power of suggestion. Lozanov claims that “suggestopedia is a system for liberation”; liberation from the “preliminary negative concept regarding the difficulties in the process of learning” that is established throughout their life in the society.
• The only major linguistic problems in the language classroom are memorization and integration.
• The result of the appropriate use of suggestion is an enormous increase in the individual’s ability to learn. (lozanov)
THE SILENT WAY
The Silent Way is commonly defined as a teaching method for foreign languages in which the teachers are mostly silent and use rods and charts as their main teaching tools. Although Silent Way teachers do use rods and charts most of the time there can be Silent Way teaching without these tools while at the same time there may be teachers who use the suggested tools but do not really follow the Silent Way.
• Teaching should be subordinated to learning.
• Students should be able to use the language for self expression.
• Students become independent by relying on themselves (confiando en si mismos).
• Only the learner can do learning.
TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR) / COMPREHENSION APPROACH.
Total physical response (TPR) is a language-teaching method developed by James Asher, It is based on the coordination of language and physical movement. In TPR, instructors give commands to students in the target language, and students respond with whole-body actions. The method is an example of the comprehension approach to language teaching. Listening serves two purposes; it is both a means of understanding messages in the language being learned, and a means of learning the structure of the language itself. Grammar is not taught explicitly, but is induced from the language input.
• Also named comprehension Approach.
• Listening comprehension first.
• Use of commands to direct behavior.
• Commands are given to get students to perform an action.
• The action makes the meaning of the command clear.
Analysis of the video watched.
Learning the keywords, understanding the meaning. Listen, watch and do. It’s important to this methodology to follow exactly the same order.
It resembles to the learning of their first language, however, the time of exposition with the foreign language is very short (3 hours a week). The children will search the function of the language. The classroom is an artificial setting, but other places as home and others are natural settings. It’s important to motivate your students and congratulates them.
• Observing how children acquire their mother tongue.
• The child chooses to speak when it is ready.
• The teacher helps his/her students to understand him/her by using pictures and occasional words in the students’ native language.
• Students are permitted to use their native language along with the target language.
The natural approach is a method of language teaching developed by Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell in the late 1970s and early 1980s. It aims to foster naturalistic language acquisition in a classroom setting, and to this end it emphasizes communication, and places decreased importance on conscious grammar study and explicit correction of student errors. Efforts are also made to make the learning environment as stress-free as possible. In the natural approach, language output is not forced, but allowed to emerge spontaneously after students have attended to large amounts of comprehensible language input.
Everyone has a natural desire not only to understand himself but also to communicate with others. The closer people live together, the more this desire becomes a necessity.
• The first step in any learning process must be the identification on interests, needs and motivations.
• Language as a medium of communication
• Communication embraces function and notions.
• Communicative and meaningful activities.
• Learner centered approach or motivation centered approach.
Concept of need:
• Ways in which the learner will be called upon to use the language in situations he may meet.
• Personal and social development of the student, including the development of study skills and self-reliance.
• Meaning is paramount.
The communicative approach is based on the idea that learning language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning. When learners are involved in real communication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will be used, and this will allow them to learn to use the language.
CLT/ Communicative language teaching
• CLT represents a reaction to previous methodological principles.
• They support what was called “the development of communicative profiency in the target language”, rather than knowledge of its structures.
Three main principles can be inferred from CLT practices:
- The communication principle: learning is promoted by activities involving real communication.
- The task principle: learning is enhanced through the use of activities in which language is employed for carrying out meaningful tasks.
- The meaningfulness principle: the learning process is supported by language which is meaningful to the student. Activities should consequently be selected according to how well they involve the learner in authentic and meaningful language use.
FUNCTIONAL APPROACH (ENFOQUE FUNCIONAL)
• It’s a process of “thinking in English”.
• If you want to ask for the age of a person… then… how old…?
• Functions instead of grammar exercises.
• Listening, speaking, reading and writing, according to needs of the students.
• Grammar aspects may be studied when students benefit from them.
• This process comes at the end, not at the beginning.