Based upon the assumption that the reader starts from decoding the most specific levels of the language before grasping the most general ones. The reader first recognizes individual letters, forms words, these in turn make up phrases, then clauses, sentences, texts… Later on, he/she makes use of his/her linguistic mechanism to make some sort of sense of the data. There are numerous activities to develop the learner’s bottom-up strategies and subsequently allow him/her to process the text in this way.
a) Identifying words by letter combinations.
b) Difficult sound clusters (strange sound on letter combinations)
c) Re-ordering scrambled words and matching
d) Discriminating minimal pair sounds
e) Reading and stress
Top- down process (desde arriba hacia abajo):
The process starts from the higher levels of processing and proceeds to use the lower levels selectively.
Background knowledge plays a key role, since the reader combines what he/she already know with the new information from the text to achieve a personal interpretation.
Activities for top down process:
a) Deducing from context:
E.g. can you deduce form context the meaning of resort, hike, and sunbathers? Are these words essential for the comprehension of the passage? Why?
b) Relating written text to general world knowledge: Relate his/her world or background knowledge to the written information from the text.
c) Drawing inferences: The reader not only needs to understand explicitly stated information but also implicit messages.
a) Eclectic approach: the reader depending no his/her purposes, the type of text, etc., activates different strategies which shift from bottom-up to top-down and viceversa. This has come to be known as interactive reading.